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May 24, 2018
Grainier Than Flour, Crispier Than Bread Crumbs

One of semolina’s underrated uses is as a crust for fried vegetables and meats.

Semolina, a sandy-textured grain, is a staple in almost every Indian household’s pantry, right next to the colorful lentils and the jars of spices. It’s used in the sweet halva of the north—seasoned with fried nuts and raisins—while in the south it’s found in spongy rava idlis, dipped into bowls of warm sambhar (a lentil stew with vegetables). Semolina can be treated like rice to make a pilaf-like dish called upma, with fried curry leaves and spices, or it can be baked into aromatic coconut cakes.

But one of the most underappreciated uses is its role in fried foods. There’s the “rava” fry, where oysters, clams, or filets of fish are lightly coated in a batter and then in a thin coat of semolina before hitting the oil in the pan. There are the “cutlets”—circular patties made from ground meat, poultry, or shrimp, that are coated with a little beaten egg and then semolina to create a crispy exterior. The final result is something marvelous—a brittle, delicate crust waiting to reveal the juicy meat inside.

Since semolina is wheat-based and usually comes from durum wheat, a type of wheat grown and used in India and the Middle East, it contains a fair amount of starch. It’s created by grinding grains of husked wheat in a mill. As the grain cracks under the applied pressure, it breaks down into a fine powder (flour) and a slightly larger, grainier particle (semolina), which are separated using a fine mesh sieve. The starch absorbs water when it comes into contact with the item it will coat and expands. Once the coated food hits the hot oil, the heat causes the water to escape as steam, which leads to creating a tight, crispy surface on the food.

This is also the reason why many foods like potatoes and plantains don’t need to be coated with starch before frying, as they’re already packed with plenty. But vegetables that have less starch, like eggplant, tomatoes, and zucchini, benefit when coated with an ingredient like semolina, which keeps the final product from getting soggy.

In my family, we use semolina quite generously when it comes to frying, so there’s a large glass jar on the topmost shelf in my pantry at all times (I usually opt for the coarser grades, which have a richer, heftier crunch). The principle and technique are the same as using bread crumbs to coat rounds of zucchini or cutlets for chicken parm. The vegetable or protein is dipped into a liquid (like a beaten egg or buttermilk) that will act like a glue, binding the semolina to create a thin coating before it can be fried. The final result is a thin, crispy layer that creates that unmistakable crunch with every bite.


  • 2 large Japanese eggplants
  • 2 teaspoons fine sea salt
  • 1 large egg
  • 1 teaspoon red chile powder
  • ½ teaspoon ground black pepper
  • ½ cup semolina
  • ½ cup canola oil for frying
  • Herbed Yogurt Dip
  • 1 teaspoon cumin
  • 1 teaspoon coriander
  • 1 cup Greek yogurt
  • ½ cup packed mint leaves
  • ½ cup packed cilantro leaves
  • 1 serrano pepper, deseeded if desired
  • 6 black peppercorns
  • ½ teaspoon fine sea salt

Eggplant can be a tricky vegetable to make crispy, since it holds a deceptive amount of water. But by salting it to extract the moisture and then seasoning and frying it with a light coat of semolina, it creates the basis for a crunchy snack. Served along with a cool, fresh herb-infused yogurt sauce, this makes a welcome appetizer or snack for any table.

  1. Trim and discard the top of the eggplants. Cut the eggplants into 1-mm thick slices and place them in a large mixing bowl. Sprinkle with 1½ teaspoons of the salt, toss to coat, and leave covered at room temperature for one hour. After an hour, discard the liquid from the eggplant slices with clean kitchen paper towels.
  2. In a medium bowl, whisk the egg, chile powder, black pepper, and remaining ½ teaspoon of salt. Fold the eggplant slices into the mixture to coat evenly.
  3. Heat the oil in a medium skillet on medium-high. Once the oil is hot, put the semolina in a separate bowl or container. With a fork or a pair of tongs, take one slice of eggplant from the egg batter, shake it to remove any excess liquid and then dip it into the semolina, coating both sides evenly and again shaking to remove any excess. Fry the eggplant slice in the hot oil for about 1 to 1½ minutes, until it is golden brown on each side, and place on a tray lined with absorbent paper towels. Prepare the remaining eggplant slices similarly and serve them with the herbed yogurt dip.

Herbed Yogurt Dip

  1. Toast the cumin and coriander seeds in a small skillet on medium-high heat for about 30 to 45 seconds until the seeds start to brown and just begin to release their aroma. Immediately transfer the seeds to a blender with the remaining ingredients and pulse on high speed until smooth and combined. Taste and adjust seasoning if necessary. Serve with the fried eggplant.

Nik Sharma

Nik Sharma is an award-winning freelance food writer and photographer. He also writes a recipe-based food column for the San Francisco Chronicle called A Brown Kitchen and is also the author of the blog A Brown Table. His first cookbook, Season (Chronicle Books), was published in October 2018. He lives in Oakland, California.